Syllabus

First Year

First Semester

CH 101 Chemistry

CH 101 Chemistry 3-1-0-8
Thermodynamics: The fundamental definition and concept, the zeroth and first law. Work, heat, energy and enthalpies. The relation between Cv and Cp. Second law: entropy, free energy (the Helmholtz and Gibbs) and chemical potential. Change of Phase: Clapeyron-Clausius equation. Third law. Chemical equilibrium, Chemical kinetics: The rate of reaction, elementary reaction and chain reaction. Electrochemistry: Conductance of solutions, equivalent and molar conductivities and its variation with concentration. Kohlrausch’s law-ionic mobilities, Transference number of ions. Activities in electrolytic solutions, application of Debye-Huckel theory. The Walden’s rule. Debye-Huckel-Onsager treatment. Electrochemical cells, Nernst equation. Application of EMF measurements. Liquid junction potential, commercial cells – the primary and secondary cells. Fuel cells. Polarisation and overvoltage.

The periodic table of elements, shapes of inorganic compounds, chemistry of materials. Coordination compounds: ligand, nomenclature, isomerism, stereochemistry, valence bond, crystal field and molecular orbital theories. Bioinorganic chemistry and organometallic chemistry.

Stereo and regio-chemistry of organic compounds, conformers. Bioorganic chemistry: amino acids, peptides, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids. Modern techniques in structural elucidation of compounds (UV – Vis, IR, NMR). Solid phase synthesis and combinatorial chemistry. Green chemical processes.

Texts:
  • P. W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry, ELBS, 5th Ed, 1994.
  • J. O'M. Bockris and A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry, Volume 1 and 2, Kluwer Academic, 2000.
  • K. L. Kapoor, A Textbook of Physical Chemistry, Macmillan India, 2nd Ed, 1986.
  • F. A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, 3rd Ed, 1972 (reprint in 1998).
  • D. J. Shriver, P. W. Atkins and C. H. Langford, Inorganic Chemistry, ELBS, 2nd Ed, 1994.
  • S. H. Pine, Organic Chemistry, McGraw Hill, 5th Ed, 1987

References:
  • I. A. Levine, Physical Chemistry, McGraw Hill, 4th Ed, 1995.
  • J. E. Huheey, E. A. Keiter and R. L. Keiter, Inorganic Chemistry: Principle, structure and reactivity, Harper Collins, 4th Ed, 1993.
  • L. G. Wade Jr., Organic Chemistry, Prentice Hall, 1987.

CH110 Chemistry Lab

CH110 Chemistry Lab 0-0-3-3 Pre-requisites: nil
Estimation of metal ion: Determination of total hardness of water by EDTA titration. Experiments based on chromatography: Identification of a mixture containing two organic compounds by TLC. Experiments based on pH metry.: Determination of dissociation constant of weak acids by pH meter. Experiments based on conductivity measurement: Determination of amount of HCl by conductometric titration with NaOH. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic complexes: e. g. Mn(acac)3, Fe(acac)3, cis-bis(glycinato)copper(II) monohydrate and their characterization by m. p. IR etc. Synthesis and characterization of organic compounds: e.g. Dibenzylideneacetone. Kinetics: Acid catalyzed hydrolysis of methylacetate. Verification of Beer-Lamberts law and determination of amount of iron present in a supplied solution. Experiments based on electrogravimetry and electroplating. Experiments based on magnetometry.

EE101 Electrical Sciences

EE101 Electrical Sciences 3-1-0-8
Circuit Analysis Techniques, Circuit elements, Simple RL and RC Circuits, Kirchoff’s law, Nodal Analysis, Mesh Analysis, Linearity and Superposition, Source Transformations, Thevnin’s and Norton’s Theorems, Time Domain Response of RC, RL and RLC circuits, Sinusoidal Forcing Function, Phasor Relationship for R, L and C, Impedance and Admittance.

Semiconductor Diode, Zener Diode, Rectifier Circuits, Clipper, Clamper, Bipolar Junction Transistors, Transistor Biasing, Transistor Small Signal Analysis, Transistor Amplifier, Operational Amplifiers, Op-amp Equivalent Circuit, Practical Op-amp Circuits, DC Offset, Constant Gain Multiplier, Voltage Summing, Voltage Buffer, Controlled Sources, Instrumentation Circuits, Active Filters and Oscillators.

Number Systems, Logic Gates, Boolean Theorem, Algebraic Simplification, K-map, Combinatorial Circuits, Encoder, Decoder, Combinatorial Circuit Design, Introduction to Sequential Circuits.

Magnetic Circuits, Mutually Coupled Circuits, Transformers, Equivalent Circuit and Performance, Analysis of Three-Phase Circuits, Electromechanical Energy Conversion, Introduction to Rotating Machines.

Texts/References:
  • C. K. Alexander, M. N. O. Sadiku, Fundementals of Electric Circuits, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2008.
  • W. H. Hayt and J. E. Kemmerly, Engineering Circuit Analysis, McGraw-Hill, 1993.
  • Donald A Neamen, Electronic Circuits; analysis and Design, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
  • Adel S. Sedra, Kenneth C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, 5th Edition, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • R. L. Boylestad and L. Nashelsky, Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 6th Edition, PHI, 2001.
  • M. M. Mano, M. D. Ciletti, Digital Design, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, 2008.
  • Floyd, Jain, Digital Fundamentals, 8th Edition, Pearson.
  • A. E. Fitzgerald, C. Kingsley Jr., S. D. Umans, Electric Machinery, 6th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2003.
  • D. P. Kothari, I. J. Nagrath, Electric Machines, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2004.


MA 101 Mathematics I

MA 101 Mathematics I 3-1-0-8
Properties of real numbers. Sequences of real numbers, montone sequences, Cauchy sequences, divergent sequences. Series of real numbers, Cauchy’s criterion, tests for convergence. Limits of functions, continuous functions, uniform continuity, montone and inverse functions. Differentiable functions, Rolle's theorem, mean value theorems and Taylor's theorem, power series. Riemann integration, fundamental theorem of integral calculus, improper integrals. Application to length, area, volume, surface area of revolution. Vector functions of one variable and their derivatives. Functions of several variables, partial derivatives, chain rule, gradient and directional derivative.

Tangent planes and normals. Maxima, minima, saddle points, Lagrange multipliers, exact differentials. Repeated and multiple integrals with application to volume, surface area, moments of inertia. Change of variables. Vector fields, line and surface integrals. Green’s, Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems and their applications.

Text Books:
  • G. B. Thomas and R. L. Finney, Calculus and Analytic Geometry, 6th Ed/ 9th Ed, Narosa/ Addison Wesley/ Pearson, 1985/ 1996.
  • T. M. Apostol, Calculus, Volume I, 2nd Ed, Wiley, 1967.
  • T. M. Apostol, Calculus, Volume II, 2nd Ed, Wiley, 1969.

References:
  • R. G. Bartle and D. R. Sherbert, Introduction to Real Analysis, 5th Ed, Wiley, 1999.
  • J. Stewart, Calculus: Early Transcendentals, 5th Ed, Thomas Learning (Brooks/ Cole), Indian Reprint, 2003.


ME110 Workshop – I

ME110 Workshop – I 0-0-3-3
Carpentry: Introduction to wood working, Marking and Measuring Tools-rule, try square, marking gauge, mortise gauge etc., Cutting Tools-rip saw, tenon saw, firmer chisel, mortise chisel, iron jack plane, wooden jack plane etc., Drilling Tools-braces, drill bits etc., Striking Tools-hammers, mallet etc., Holding Tools-bench vice, G-cramp etc., Miscellaneous Tools- rasps, files, screw driver, pincer etc.; Operations-marking, sawing, planning, chiseling, boring, grooving etc., Joints- Corner joints, Tenon and Mortise joint, Briddle cross-joint.

Fitting: Introduction to fitting, Tools-bench vice, hammers, chisels, files-flat file, square file, half round file, round file, knife edge file, scrapers, hacksaws, try squares, drill machine, drill bits, taps, dies etc, Operations-chipping, filing, scrapping, sawing, marking, drilling, tapping, dieing etc.;

Sheet Metal Working: Introduction to sheet metal work; GI sheets, aluminium, tin plate, copper, brass etc, Toolssteel rule, vernier calipers, micrometer, sheet metal gauge etc., scriber, divider, punches, chisels, hammers, snips, pliers, stakes, rivets etc., Operations-shearing, bending, drawing, squeezing etc.

Pattern making and Foundry: Introduction to pattern making, moulding and foundry practice. Pattern material-wood, cast iron, brass, aluminium, waxes etc., different types of patterns, core-boxes, core prints, hand tools-shovel, riddle, rammer, trowel, slick, lifter, sprue pin, bellow, mallet,vent rod, pouring weights etc., moulding sands-green sand, dry sand, loam sand, facing sand etc., grain shape and size, properties of moulding sand, sand preparation and testing etc., casting- permanent mould casting, centrifugal casting etc.

Text and Reference books:
  • Hajra Choudhury, Hazra Choudhary and Nirjhar Roy, 2007, Elements of Workshop Technology, vol. I, Media promoters and Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  • W A J Chapman, Workshop Technology, 1998, Part -1, 1st South Asian Edition, Viva Book Pvt Ltd.
  • P.N. Rao, 2009, Manufacturing Technology, Vol.1, 3rd Ed., Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company.
  • Kaushish J.P., Manufacturing Processes, 2008, Prentice Hall India.


ME 111 Engineering Drawing

ME 111 Engineering Drawing 2-0-3-7
Geometrical construction of simple plane figure: Bisecting the line, draw perpendicular, parallel line, bisect angle, trisect angle, construct equatorial triangle, square, polygon, inscribed circle

Free hand sketching: prerequisites for freehand sketching, sketching of regular and irregular figures.

Drawing scales: Engineering scale, graphical scale, plane scale, diagonal scale, comparative scale, scale of chord

Orthographic projection: Principle of projection, method of projection, orthographic projection, plane of projection, first angle of projection, third angle of projection, reference line

Projection of points, lines and plane: A point is situated in the first quadrant, point is situated in the second quadrant, point is situated in the third quadrant, point is situated in the fourth quadrant, projection of line parallel to both the plane, line contained by one or both the plane, line perpendicular to one of the plane, line inclined to one plane and parallel to other, line inclined to both the plane, true length of line

Missing views: Drawing of missing front view of a solid, missing top view of solids, missing side view of solids Orthographic projection of simple solid: Introduction, types of solid, projection of solid when axis perpendicular to HP, axis perpendicular to VP, axis parallel to both HP and VP, axis inclined to both HP and VP

Orthographic projection of simple solid: Introduction, types of solid, projection of solid when axis perpendicular to HP, axis perpendicular to VP, axis parallel to both HP and VP, axis inclined to both HP and VP

Text and Reference books:
  • B. Agrawal and CM Agrawal, Engineering Drawing, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2008.
  • D. A. Jolhe, Engineering Drawing, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2006.
  • K Venugopal, Engineering Drawing and Graphics, 2nd ed, New Age International, 1994.


HS101 English: Language through Literature

HS101 English: Language through Literature 3-0-0-6
Essays
  • Freedom by George Bernard Shaw
  • Student Mobs by J.B. Priestley

Short Stories
  • The Three Dancing Goats- A Folk Tale (Anonymous)
  • The Fortune Teller by Karel Capek
  • Grief by Anton Chekov

One-Act Play
  • Refund by Fritz Karinthy

Poems
  • Night of the Scorpion by Nissim Ezekiel
  • Porphyria’s Lover by Robert Browning

Text:
  • ‘Essays, Short Stories and One-Act Plays’ ed. By R.K. Kaushik and S.C. Bhatia, Oxford University Press, 1975

References:
  • Krishna Mohan and Meera Banerji, Developing Communication Skills, Macmillan India Ltd.
  • John Eastwood, Oxford Practice Grammar, Oxford, New Delhi, 2005


PH101 Physics – I

PH101 Physics – I 2-1-0-6 Pre-requisites: nil
Classical Mechanics: Position, velocity and acceleration vectors in plane polar coordinate. Newton’s laws of motion. Fundamental forces. Contact forces. System of Particles. Conservation of momentum. Work-energy theorem. Line integral of a vector field. Conservative forces. Gradient of a scalar field. Potential energy and equilibrium. Conservation of energy. Angular momentum. Rotation about fixed axis. Torque. Motion involving translation and rotation. Vector nature of angular velocity and angular momentum. The Gyroscope. Pseudo forces. Rotating frame. Centrifugal and Coriolis forces. Foucault pendulum. Special Theory of Relativity: Result of Michelson-Morley Experiment. Postulates of STR. Galilean transformation. Lorentz transformation. Simultaneity. Length contraction. Time dilation. Relativistic addition of velocities. Quantum Mechanics: Failure of classical concepts. De Broglie’s hypothesis. Davison and Germer’s experiment. Uncertainity Principle, Wave packets. Phase and Group velocities. Schrodinger equation. Probabilities and Normalization. Expectation values. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. Applicationa in one dimension: Particle in a box, Finite Potential well, Steps and Barriers, Harmonic oscillator.

Text:
  • D. Kleppner and R. J. Kolenkow, An Introduction to Mechanics, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2000.
  • K. Krane, Modern Physics, John Wiley, Singapore, 1998.

References:
  • R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton and M. Sands, The Feynman Lecture in Physics, Vol I, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 1998.
  • J. M. Knudsen and P. G. Hjorth, Elements of Newtonian Mechanics, Springer, 1995.
  • R. Resnick, Introduction to Special Relativity, John Wiley, Singapore, 2000.
  • A. Beiser, Concepts of Modern Physics, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 1995


Second Semester

MA 102 Mathematics II

MA 102 Mathematics II 3-1-0-8 Pre-requisites: nil
Linear Algebra: Vector spaces (over the field of real and complex numbers). Systems of linear equations and their solutions. Matrices, determinants, rank and inverse. Linear transformations. Range space and rank, null space and nullity. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Similarity transformations. Diagonalization of Hermitian matrices. Bilinear and quadratic forms.

Ordinary Differential Equations: First order ordinary differential equations, exactness and integrating factors. Variation of parameters. Picard's iteration. Ordinary linear differential equations of n-th order, solutions of homogeneous and non-homogeneous equations. Operator method. Method of undetermined coefficients and variation of parameters.

Power series methods for solutions of ordinary differential equations. Legendre equation and Legendre polynomials, Bessel equation and Bessel functions of first and second kind.

Systems of ordinary differential equations, phase plane, critical point, stability.

Text :
  • K. Hoffman and R. Kunze, Linear Algebra, Prentice Hall, 1996.
  • T. M. Apostol, Calculus, Volume II, 2nd Edition, Wiley, 1969.
  • S. L. Ross, Differential Equations, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 1984.
  • E. A. Coddington, An Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations, Prentice Hall, 1995.
  • W.E. Boyce and R.C. DiPrima, Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems, 7th Edition,Wiley, 2001.

References :
  • E. Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 9th Edition, Wiley, 2005.


ME 101 Engineering Mechanics

ME 101 Engineering Mechanics 3-1-0-8 Pre-requisites: nil
Rigid body static: Equivalent force system. Equations of equilibrium, Free body diagram, Reaction, Static indeterminacy and partial constraints, Two and three force systems. Structures: 2D truss, Method of joints, Method of section. Frame, Beam, types of loading and supports, Shear Force and Bending Moment diagram, relation among load-shear force-bending moment.

Friction: Dry friction (static and kinematics), wedge friction, disk friction (thrust bearing), belt friction, square threaded screw, journal bearings (Axle friction), Wheel friction, Rolling resistance.

Center of Gravity and Moment of Inertia: First and second moment of area and mass, radius of gyration, parallel axis theorem, product of inertia, rotation of axes and principal M. I., Thin plates, M.I. by direct method (integration), composite bodies. Virtual work and Energy method: Virtual Displacement, principle of virtual work, mechanical efficiency, work of a force/couple (springs etc.), Potential Energy and equilibrium, stability.

Kinematics of Particles: Rectilinear motion, curvilinear motion rectangular, normal tangential, polar, cylindrical, spherical (coordinates), relative and constrained motion, space curvilinear motion.

Kinetics of Particles: Force, mass and acceleration, work and energy, impulse and momentum, impact.

Kinetics of Rigid Bodies: Translation, fixed axis rotation, general planner motion, workenergy, power, potential energy, impulse-momentum and associated conservation principles, euler equations of motion and its application.

Texts/References :
  • I. H. Shames, Engineering Mechanics: Statics and dynamics, 4th Ed, PHI, 2002.
  • F. P. Beer and E. R. Johnston, Vector Mechanics for Engineers, Vol I - Statics, Vol II – Dynamics, 3rd Ed, Tata McGraw Hill, 2000.
  • J. L. Meriam and L. G. Kraige, Engineering Mechanics, Vol I – Statics, Vol II – Dynamics, 5th Ed, John Wiley, 2002.
  • R. C. Hibbler, Engineering Mechanics, Vol I and II, Pearson Press, 2002.
  • Andy ruina and Rudra Pratap, Introduction to Statics and Dynamics


EC 102 Basic Electronics laboratory

EC 102 Basic Electronics laboratory 0-0-4-4 Pre-requisites: nil
Experiments using diodes and bipolar junction transistor (BJT): design and analysis of half -wave and full-wave rectifiers, clipping circuits and Zener regulators, BJT characteristics and BJT amplifiers; experiments using operational amplifiers (op-amps): summing amplifier, comparator, precision rectifier, astable and monostable multivibrators and oscillators; experiments using logic gates: combinational circuits such as staircase switch, majority detector, equality detector, multiplexer and demultiplexer; experiments using flip-flops: sequential circuits such as non-overlapping pulse generator, ripple counter, synchronous counter, pulse counter and numerical display.

References :
  • A. P. Malvino, Electronic Principles. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill, 1993.
  • R. A. Gayakwad, Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India, 2002.
  • R.J. Tocci: Digital Systems; PHI, 6e, 2001.


CS101 Introduction to Computing

CS101 Introduction to Computing 3-0-0-6 Pre-requisites: Nil
Digital computer fundamentals: flowcharts, the von Neumann architecture, programs, assembly language, high level programming languages, text editors, operating systems. Imperative programming (Using C): data types, variables, operators, expressions, statements, control structures, functions, arrays and pointers, recursion, records (structures), files, input/output, some standard library functions and some elementary data structures.

Program development: programming tools, testing and debugging.

Texts:
A. Kelley and I. Pohl, A Book on C, 4th Ed, Pearson Education, 1998.

References:
  • B. W. Kernighan and D. Ritchie, The C Programming Language, 2nd Ed, Prentice Hall of India, 1988.


CS110 Computing Laboratory

CS110 Computing Laboratory 0-0-3-3 Pre-requisites: Nil
Laboratory experiments will be set in consonance with the material covered in CS 101. This will include assignments in a programming language like C.

References:
  • Kernighan B., Ritchie D., The Programming Language, Prentice Hall India, 1995.


PH102 Physics - II

PH102 Physics - II 2-1-0-6 Pre-requisites: nil
Vector Calculus: Gradient, Divergence and Curl. Line, Surface and Volume integrals. Gauss’s divergence theorem and Stokes’ theorem in Cartesian, Spherical polar and cylindrical polar coordinates. Dirac Delta function.

Electrodynamics: Coulomb’s law and Electrostatic field, Fields of continuous charge distributions. Gauss’s law and its applications. Electrostatic Potential. Work and Energy. Conductors, capacitors. Laplace’s equation. Method of images. Dielectrics. Polarization. Bound charges. Energy in dielectrics. Boundary conditions. Lorentz force. Biot-Savart and Ampere’s laws and their applications. Vector Potential. Force and torque on a magnetic dipole. Magnetic materials. Magnetization, Bound currents. Boundary conditions. Motional EMF, Ohm’s law. Faraday’s law. Lenz’s law. Self and Mutual inductance. Energy stored in magnetic field. Maxwell’s equations.

Optics: huygens’ principle. Young’s experiment. Superposition of waves. Concepts of coherence sources. Interference by division of wavefront. Fresnel’s biprism, Phase change on reflection. Lioyd’s mirror. Interference by division of amplitude. Parallel film. Film of varying thickness. Colours of thin films. Newton’s rings. The Michelson interferometer. Fraunhofer diffraction. Single slit, double slit and N-slit patterns. The diffraction grating.

Texts:
  • D. J. Griffiths, Introduction to Electrodynamics, Prentice Hall, New Delhi, 1995.
  • F. A. Jenkins and H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, McGraw-Hill, 1981.

References:
  • R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton and M. Sands, The Feynman Lecture in Physics, Vol I, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 1998
  • I. S. Grant and W. R. Philips, Electromagnetism, John Wiley, 1990.
  • E. Hecht, Optics, Addison-Wesley, 1987.


PH110 Physics Laboratory

PH110 Physics Laboratory 0-0-3-3 Pre-requisites: nil
Instructions to Students
Introduction to Error Analysis

  • Decay of Current in Capacitive Circuit
  • Forced and Damped Oscillations
  • Compound Pendulum
  • Study of Hall Effect
  • Speed of Light in Glass
  • Magnetic Field along the Axis of Coil
  • Fraunhofer Diffraction: Single Slit
  • Velocity of Sound in Air
  • Photovoltaic Effect: Solar Cell


CH102 Chemistry-II

CH102 Chemistry-II 3-0-0-6 Pre-requisites: nil

Module 1: Polymer Chemistry

Unit 1: Polymer Chemistry in Everyday Life
  • Introduction to polymer chemistry.
  • Plastics, reinforced plastics & rubbers: production of household goods.
  • Polymers in medicine and drugs, surgery and cosmetics.

Module 2: Introduction to Chemical Biology

Unit 1: Biochemical evolution and cell
  • Molecular evolution of Life: Biochemical evolution, the first cell.
  • Cell Structure and types, Different organelles and function, cell division.
  • Basic concept of Embryonic stem cell.

Unit 2: Methods in Chemical Biology
  • Chemical Methods to synthesize artificial Proteins and peptides.
  • Chemical Methods to synthesize artificial DNA and RNA.

Unit 3: Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Recombinant DNA technology-concept of Cloning.
  • Concepts of Gene and genome, Gene transfer and Gene therapy
  • DNA fingerprinting: application in Forensic Science (crime investigation & parental testing).

Module 3: Chemistry of Environment

Unit 1: Environment and Ecosystem: Basics
  • Basic idea and definition of environment and ecosystem and important components.
  • Environmental protection and Hazards- importance and identification of sources.

Unit 2: Technology for Air and Water Pollution Control
  • Air Pollutants and their effect on Health.
  • Sources of air pollution- artificial and natural, "Clean Air Act"
  • Technology for air pollution control: Particulate control, Scrubbers, catalytic converters, VOC abatement.
  • Water pollution categories: point and non point source.
  • Industrial and domestic waste water management.

Unit 3: Alternative Energy Sources
  • Biofuels: alcohol, hydrogen production technology, Biofuels from Jatropa.
  • Green energy: sources, efficiency and sustainability; Energy from Biomass and solid waste.
  • Renewable energy resources: solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, ocean, fuel cells.

Text :
  • Polymer Chemistry, Malcolm P. Stevens, Oxford University Press Inc., 3rd Edition, 1998.
  • Chemistry of the Environment, Bailey, Clark, Ferris, Krause & Strong, 2nd Edition, Academic Press (Elsevier).
  • Environmental Engineering, R. Srinivasan, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
  • Biotechnology, B. D. Singh, Kalyani Publishers, 1st Edition, 2005.

References :
  • Renewable Energy Sources and Emerging Technologies, D. P. Kothari, Rakesh Ranjan and K. C. Saigal, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
  • Polymer Science and Technology - 2nd edition, Fried Joel R., PHI Learning.
  • Biotechnology: An Introduction, Susan R. Bernum, Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Second Year, Third Year, Fourth Year